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ZIKA awasPUTRAJAYA, 1 Sept (Bernama) — Malaysia mencatatkan kes virus Zika pertama apabila seorang wanita dari Klang, disahkan positif dijangkiti virus tersebut selepas pulang dari Singapura pada 21 Ogos, kata Menteri Kesihatan Datuk Seri Dr S Subramaniam.

Beliau berkata wanita berusia 58 itu yang menetap di Bandar Botanic, Klang telah datang mendapatkan rawatan di sebuah klinik swasta di Klang selepas mula mendapat gejala ruam, seminggu selepas pulang dari negara jiran terbabit.

ZIKA-fakta tentang virus zika“Berdasarkan sejarah lawatan beliau ke Singapura dan anak perempuan yang berada di sana juga telah dijangkiti virus itu, maka wanita tersebut telah dirujuk ke Hospital Sungai Buloh dan hasil ujian air kencing menunjukkan beliau telah dijangkiti Zika,” katanya dalam sidang media di sini Khamis.

Tambahnya, difahamkan wanita itu yang sedang dirawat di Hospital Sungai Buloh kini berada dalam proses pemulihan.

Menurutnya, setakat ini negara jiran, Singapura telah mencatatkan lebih 115 kes jangkitan Zika dengan lima orang daripadanya adalah rakyat Malaysia yang dipercayai bekerja di sana.

Zika-fakta-utusanSusulan itu, katanya, kementerian telah mengambil langkah kawalan vektor di kawasan kediaman kes dan tempat yang dilawati pesakit termasuk tempat pembiakan aedes, penggunaan larvisid dan semburan kabus.

“Kami juga membuat pemeriksaan dan memantau kenalan yang telah berhubung dengan beliau sama ada turut mengalami demam atau simptom Zika yang lain,” katanya.

ZIKA virusDitanya adakah kementerian akan mengeluarkan nasihat larangan ke Singapura susulan perkara itu, Dr Subramaniam berkata tiada keperluan untuk berbuat demikian dan jika ia dilakukan akan memberi impak lain.

“Terdapat kira-kira 200,000 rakyat Malaysia yang berulang alik ke Singapura setiap hari dan mereka dinasihatkan untuk mengambil langkah pencegahan seperti memakai krim penghalau nyamuk sekerap mungkin,” katanya.

Dr Subramaniam berkata bagi kenderaan dari Malaysia ke Singapura atau sebaliknya dinasihatkan untuk menggunakan penyembur ubat nyamuk ke atas kenderaan mereka bagi mengelakkan nyamuk aedes pembawa penyakit tersebut merentasi ke negara ini.

“Selain itu, kami juga menasihatkan wanita mengandung yang mempunyai apa-apa soalan berkenaan Zika segera merujuk kepada pakar perubatan kerana risiko bagi bayi yang dikandungi untuk dijangkiti virus itu adalah tinggi,” katanya.

Dr Subramaniam berkata buat masa ini terdapat sekurang-kurangnya 16 pusat perubatan kementerian yang mempunyai kemudahan mengesan virus Zika di seluruh negara selain makmal perubatan swasta.

[semua infografik adalah dari pelbagai sumber hasil carian internet]

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Zika_virus_final2Zika_virus_final2-01

 

ZIKA-what is - WHO

ZIKA-treatment-WHO

ZIKA-prevention-WHO

 

 

Ini petikan dari iklan di Jobstreet untuk Pink Triangle (salah satu pertubuhan yang menganjur Seksualiti Merdeka dan ahli anggota COMANGO).

 

NETWORK COORDINATOR:

Tasks and Responsibilities of the Network Coordinator. 1. Responsible for all the affairs and overall coordination of activities related to the Malaysian Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (MSM) …

Jobstreet-PTfoundation-iklanMSM

Bukankah mencegah penyakit adalah lebih baik dari mengubatinya?

Kenapa tidak dibendung dari punca masalah?

Baca petikan berikut, yang dipetik dari laman PT Foundation, bukankah ini menggalakkan perlakuan seks rambang :

No matter how many sexual partners you have, practising safer sex and protecting both yourself and others is an important part of your sex life.

If you’re in a main relationship and have an agreement that sex outside the partnership is acceptable then being open and honest about any risks you may have taken is an important part of looking after each other’s sexual health.

Always carrying condoms, knowing your limits with alcohol and avoiding drug use are all good steps to protect yourself in sexual encounters.

… memikirkan masalah umat akhir zaman yang penuh fitnah ini …

Ya Allah selamatkanlahku dan keluargaku serta sahabat handaiku dari fitnah akhir zaman.

Keputusan panel hakim Mahkamah Rayuan berhubung isu orang lelaki yang berpakaian perempuan baru-baru ini amat mengejutkan ramai kita.

Panel hakim yang bersidang memutuskan bahawa Seksyen 66 Enakmen Jenayah Syariah (Negeri Sembilan) 1992 yang memperuntukkan hukuman ke atas lelaki Islam berpakaian wanita bercanggah dengan perlembagaan – dengan itu mengisytiharkan Seksyen 66 sebagai terbatal.

Pertamanya mari kita faham apa isu yang dibicarakan. (Saya tidak mengguna pendekatan hukum syariah)

1. Hak Asasi Manusia

2. Lelaki yang berpakaian perempuan

Hak Asasi Manusia sememangnya terpelihara dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Kebebasan Asasi (Fundamental Rights) ini memang disebut dalam Bahagian II Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Namun ianya tidak memberi hak kepada orang yang sakit gila untuk mengamuk membunuh orang.

Orang gila hendaklah diberikan rawatan dengan sempurnanya supaya pesakit mental ini tidak menganggu ketenteraman awam.

ICD10Perkara kedua yang ingin dibicara ialah “lelaki perpakaian perempuan” – ianya merupakan suatu penyakit mental (mental disorder). Kepada pengamal perubatan mereka sudah pasti maklum dengan klasifikasi penyakit World Health Organisation (WHO) yang disebut sebagai ICD (International Classification of Diseases) yang kini dalam versi ICD-10. ICD ini merupakan rujukan asas diagnostik untuk epidemiologi, pengurusan kesihatan dan juga bagi tujuan klinikal.

Menurut ICD-10, lelaki yang berpakaian perempuan diklasifikasikan di bawah F64. Ia termasuk F64.0 – Transsexualism dan F64.1 – Dual-role transvestism … dalam bahasa mudahnya kita sebut PONDANlah … walaupun ada sedikit perbezaan antara kedua). Di bawah klasifikasi F64, F65 dan F66, terdapat pelbagai jenis lagi penyakit-penyakit mental berkaitan seksual sebegini.

penyakit mentalWalaupun disepakati di kalangan pakar bahawa pesakit begini lazimnya sukar untuk diubati antaranya kerana keengganan mereka untuk berubah namun pesakit ini mesti diberi rawatan.

Mereka sepatutnya mendapatkan hak mereka untuk mendapat rawatan sempurna. Bukan kita menggalakkan lagi mereka semakin menggila.

Apabila mereka semakin menggila bertambahlah mereka tidak peduli akan penyakitnya itu.

Begitu juga dengan orang gila yang sakit mental jika kita biarkan mereka tanpa rawatan, orang gila ini boleh mengamuk mengganggu ketenteraman awam dan boleh mencedera dan membunuh orang awam.

Pembelaan hak ke atas orang berpenyakit mental ialah memberi rawatan yang sewajarnya.

Panduan ini dikeluarkan oleh Jabatan Farmasi Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya.

panduan pengambilan ubat - puasa

Panduan ini diambil dari: http://farmasi.ummc.edu.my/uploadfile/prescriber/PrescriberHandBook_1_7_2013(14_37_52).pdf

SEREMBAN, 22 Ogos (Bernama) — Seorang wanita berusia 27 tahun meninggal dunia akibat Influenza A (H1N1) di Negeri Sembilan beberapa hari lepas, kata Pengarah Jabatan Kesihatan negeri Datuk Dr Zailan Adnan.

Beliau berkata pihaknya telah melakukan siasatan terperinci dan keadaan adalah terkawal serta tiada penularan wabak itu.

“Kami telah menjalankan siasatan terperinci dan telah memastikan tidak ada di kalangan keluarga mangsa yang dijangkiti H1N1,” katanya ketika dihubungi di sini Rabu.

Dr Zailan berkata wanita yang bekerja di Singapura itu pulang ke negeri ini beberapa hari lepas untuk bercuti, dan telah jatuh sakit serta menerima rawatan di sebuah hospital, di sini sebelum meninggal dunia.

Beliau menasihatkan orang ramai supaya tidak panik atau membuat sebarang spekulasi mengenai perkara itu.

— BERNAMA

 sumber: Kosmo

PENGGUNA perlu merujuk kepada pakar perubatan terlebih dahulu sebelum mengambil ubat-ubatan tradisional. - Gambar hiasan

DEWASA ini penggunaan ubat-ubatan tradisional dan komplementari (TCM) semakin mendapat kepercayaan berikutan kerancakan aktiviti penyelidikan dan kecanggihan teknologi yang digunakan pengeluar.

Ubat itu termasuk ubat tradisional Melayu dan Cina, selain rawatan ayurveda, homeopati dan akupuntur.

Bagaimanapun, bukan semua produk yang dikatakan ubat itu boleh menyembuhkan penyakit. Malah, banyak kes berkaitan ubat tradisional dan alternatif sebelum ini didapati mendatangkan mudarat.

Berdasarkan rekod Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, sebanyak 11,885 produk TCM telah didaftarkan dengan Pihak Berkuasa Kawalan Dadah (PBKD) setakat ini.

Namun, pada tahun lepas, Biro Pengawalan Farmaseutikal Kebangsaan (BPFK) menerima 127 laporan kesan mudarat akibat penggunaan produk tradisional termasuk yang didaftarkan dengan PBKD.

Ujian

BPFK mengesan pelbagai produk tradisional yang dicemari dengan bahan terkawal atau racun berjadual seperti steroid, sibutramine (ubat langsing) dan sildenafil (ubat kuat lelaki).

Bahan-bahan terkawal itu berfungsi untuk menahan kesakitan selain bertindak melangsingkan badan seseorang. Ia juga didakwa mampu menambah kekuatan tenaga batin lelaki dan wanita.

Mengulas isu ini, Pengarah Pusat Racun Negara, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Prof. Madya Razak Lajis memberitahu, kebanyakan ubat tradisional dan alternatif tidak melalui fasa ujian klinikal bagi mengenal pasti produk tersebut selamat digunakan.

“Produk yang telah didaftarkan ini hanya melalui ujian keselamatan penting di BPFK seperti saringan steroid, logam berat dan bahan terlarang berdasarkan dakwaan khasiat oleh pengeluar atau pengedar.

“Dakwaan yang dinyatakan oleh pengeluar mungkin terhad kepada kajian ke atas haiwan, testimoni pengguna dan rujukan secara turun-temurun,” katanya.

Namun begitu, Razak menjelaskan tidak semua produk tradisional memberi kesan sampingan kepada pengguna.

“Sama seperti ubat-ubatan moden, ada yang memberi kesan sampingan dan ada yang tidak.

“Apa yang penting pengguna yang mengambil ubat ini perlu merujuk pakar perubatan terlebih dahulu,” katanya.

Beliau juga mengingatkan penghidap penyakit kronik seperti darah tinggi dan kencing manis bahawa rawatan moden dan tradisional hanya berfungsi untuk mengawal penyakit tersebut dan bukan memulihkannya.

JANGAN berhenti mengambil ubat-ubatan moden walaupun serasi dengan ubat-ubatan tradisional. – Gambar hiasan

Pakar

Katanya lagi, pesakit tidak harus berhenti daripada mengambil ubat-ubatan moden walaupun mereka sedang mencuba rawatan alternatif.

“Ini kerana ubat-ubatan tersebut dapat membantu mengelakkan penyakit tersebut daripada melarat.

“Ubat moden mesti diambil walaupun ubat tradisional terbabit mula menunjukkan kesan positif,” katanya.

Ujarnya lagi, ini bagi menggelakkan sebarang interaksi bahaya antara ubat-ubatan.

“Ubat tradisional berfungsi pada bahagian tertentu dalam badan sama seperti ubatan moden.

“Jika saling berinteraksi, ia mungkin mendatangkan bahaya pada individu itu selain mendedahkan pengguna kepada penyakit seperti kerosakan buah pinggang,” katanya.

Razak menambah, status kesihatan dan penyakit sedia ada adalah faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan ubat tradisional.

“Sentiasa rujuk pada label dan kandungan ubat tersebut. Jika ragu-ragu, beli ubat tersebut di farmasi berdaftar,” katanya.

Seorang pakar farmasi dari Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Puncak Alam, Aida Azlina Ali, berkata bukan semua orang perlu mengambil ubat-ubatan tradisional.

“Jika seseorang telah mengamalkan diet yang sempurna dan berkhasiat, tubuh mereka tidak memerlukan ubat tersebut.

“Ini kerana pengambilan ubat tradisional tanpa mengikut keperluan boleh bertukar menjadi toksik yang membahayakan tubuh,” katanya.

Beliau turut menasihatkan mereka yang ingin mengambil produk TCM supaya bertanya kepada pakar perubatan sebelum menggunakannya.

“Mungkin ubat itu berkesan untuk jangka masa pendek sahaja. Teliti dahulu kandungannya serta rujuklah pakar.

“Selain itu, jangan sekali-kali meninggalkan ubat moden kerana kebanyakan ubat sebegini telah menjalani pelbagai ujian klinikal sebelum diluluskan,” katanya.

Dilaporkan oleh satu kajian bahawa 16% dari telefon bimbit dan tangan penggunanya di United Kingdom mempunyai kontiminasi kuman bakteria najis manusia (e. coli). Apakah ini ada kaitan dengan cara bersuci/istinja’ budaya mereka?

Inilah yang amat ditekankan dalam Islam dalam bab bersuci (klik) dan berinstinja (klik) dengan pelbagai adab-adab yang wajar orang Mukmin teliti (klik).

Boleh baca seterusnya dari blog Kitab Bimbingan Mukminin.

Wassalam

*****

One in six mobile phones contain E coli

Reseachers say 16% of UK mobile devices and users’ hands contaminated with faecal bacteria due to poor personal hygiene

mobile phone hand

Scientist have found that 16% of UK mobile phones contain traces of E coli bacteria due to poor personal hygiene. Photograph: Linda Nylind for the Guardian

One in six UK mobile phones are contaminated with faecal bacteria due to poor personal hygiene, scientists have found.

Researchers said that 16% of the devices were contaminated with E coli, which can cause food poisoning, most probably because people fail to properly wash their hands after going to the toilet. The study by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Queen Mary, University of London, also found that Britons tend to lie about their personal hygiene.

While 95% of the 390 people surveyed said they washed their hands with soap where possible, 92% of mobile phones and 82% of hands were contaminated with bacteria.

The study, which took samples from 390 phones in 12 cities, raises serious public health concerns as it found that 16% of hands and the same proportion of phones were contaminated with E coli. A virulent strain of the bacterium has recently been implicated in the fatal outbreak of food poisoning in Germany in June.

Dr Val Curtis, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said: “This study provides more evidence that some people still don’t wash their hands properly, especially after going to the toilet.

“I hope the thought of having E coli on their hands and phones encourages them to take more care in the bathroom – washing your hands with soap is such a simple thing to do but there is no doubt it saves lives.”

Birmingham has the highest proportion of bacteria-ridden phones (41%) but the highest level of E coli contamination was found in London (28%).

But the scientists also found a north-south divide in the levels of bacteria found on phones, with northern cities the dirtiest. Glasgow was the worst with average bacterial levels on phones and hands nine times higher than in Brighton.

The scientists also found those who had bacteria on their hands were three times as likely to have bacteria on their phone.

Dr Ron Cutler, of Queen Mary, University of London, said: “While some cities did much better than others, the fact that E coli was present on phones and hands in every location shows this is a nationwide problem.

“People may claim they wash their hands regularly but the science shows otherwise.”

Faecal bacteria can survive on hands and surfaces for hours at a time, especially in warmer temperatures away from sunlight. It is easily transferred by touch to door handles, food and even mobile phones.

The research was released ahead of Global Handwashing Day on 15 October.

[sumber berita dari http://www.guardian.co.uk]

sumber: http://www.e-fatwa.gov.my/

Hukum Memakan Dan Berubat Dengan Cicak Gekko Geckko (Tokay)

Keputusan:
Muzakarah Jawatankuasa Fatwa Majlis Kebangsaan Bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia Kali Ke-95 yang bersidang pada 16-18 Jun 2011 telah membincangkan mengenai Hukum Memakan Dan Berubat Dengan Cicak Gekko Geckko (Tokay) . Muzakarah telah membuat keputusan seperti berikut:
  1. Setelah meneliti keterangan, hujah-hujah dan pandangan yang dikemukakan, Muzakarah berpandangan bahawa para fuqaha’ telah mengklasifikasikan Cicak Gekko Geckko (Tokay) sebagai binatang yang haram dimakan kerana tergolong dalam kategori haiwan yang menjijikkan (khabis) dan mempunyai racun. Begitu juga dengan uruf masyarakat Islam di Malaysia yang tidak menjadikan binatang ini sebagai makanan yang biasa dimakan. Selain itu, sehingga kini tidak ada bukti saintifik dan ujian klinikal yang membuktikan bahawa Cicak Gekko Geckko (Tokay) mampu menjadi penawar atau mengubati penyakit-penyakit tertentu.
  2. Sehubungan itu, Muzakarah bersetuju memutuskan bahawa hukum memakan Cicak Gekko Geckko (Tokay) adalahdiharamkan oleh Islam. Manakala untuk tujuan perubatan, penggunaan Cicak Gekko Geckko (Tokay) diharuskan dengan syarat keberkesanannya dapat dibuktikan dari segi saintifik dan tiada alternatif ubat lain yang boleh digunakan bagi merawat penyakit berkaitan.

Friday April 8 2011 (NHS.uk)

Alcohol was thought caused 58,000 cancers in the study group

 

Alcohol “causes 13,000 cancer cases a year”, The Daily Telegraph has reported. The newspaper says that in the UK drinking is responsible for 2,500 cases of breast cancers, 3,000 bowel cancers and 6,000 cases of cancers of the mouth, throat or windpipe.

The research used data from a large European study which looked at how current and former alcohol consumption related to the development of cancer in more than 350,000 people from eight countries. The researchers extrapolated the results to the general population and estimated that, across Europe, 10% of all cancers in men and 3% of all cancers in women could be attributed to alcohol consumption. There was a stronger association with cancers that are already known to be causally associated with alcohol, such as cancers of the mouth, throat, oesophagus and liver. For these cancers, much of the excess risk was due to drinking above the maximum daily limit, defined in this study as more than 24g of pure alcohol for men (3 units) and more than 12g for women (1.5 units).

In the UK, the current recommended daily limit for men is 3-4 units, while for women it is no more than 2-3 units daily. One unit is equivalent to 8g alcohol, or about half a pint of weak lager.

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the German Institute of Human Nutrition in Potsdam-Rehbruecke, and other institutions in Europe and the US. It received funding from numerous organisations and was published in the peer-reviewed British Medical Journal.

News coverage has reflected the findings of this well-conducted study.

What kind of research was this?

This was a cohort study which aimed to establish alcohol’s contribution towards the burden of cancer across eight European countries. To do this, researchers used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort study set up to examine how the diet and lifestyle of a large European population sample related to their development of cancer over a  follow-up period of nearly nine years.

Alongside their alcohol-related findings based on this cohort, the researchers also used general population-based data on alcohol consumption and cancer incidence to extrapolate the findings to the national populations from which the EPIC participants were drawn.

What did the research involve?

The EPIC study started in 1992 and recruited 520,000 men and women (aged from 37 to 70 years) from the general population of 10 European countries: France, Italy, Spain, Holland, Greece, Germany Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK.

Upon entry into the study, the participants completed diet and lifestyle questionnaires. The researchers excluded people with cancer at the start of the study and those with missing questionnaire data on alcohol consumption. This lead the researchers to include 109,118 men and 254,870 women across eight countries in their analysis (data from Norway and Sweden could not be used due to a lack of data on past alcohol consumption.

The validated questionnaires asked participants to estimate their alcohol consumption in the year before recruitment, both in terms of average grams of pure alcohol per day and as the frequency/portion size of beer, wine, spirits, etc. Researchers also asked about past consumption at ages 20, 30, 40 and 50. Based on these two responses – past and current consumption – people were categorised as:

  • never drinkers – no consumption in the past or at recruitment
  • former drinkers – consumption in the past but no consumption at recruitment
  • lifetime drinkers – consumption both in the past and at recruitment

Cancer outcomes for each individual were assessed up to the years 2000-2005, using regional cancer registries, checks of medical records, health insurance records, pathology records and death certificates. The precise methods varied according to the practices used in each country. The mean follow-up time was almost nine years.

Risk associations between cancer and current and former alcohol use were conducted separately for men and women. The researchers made adjustments to account for the influence of numerous potential socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, including smoking, diet, BMI and education level. The risk figures obtained for the association between alcohol and cancer were then applied to alcohol consumption in each country’s general population (calculated from World Health Organization surveys and per capita consumption data) and cancer incidence data to estimate the total number of cases of cancer per year that could be attributable to alcohol in males and females aged 15 and above.

Researchers used this data to calculate a measure called the ‘population attributable fraction’ for consumption beyond the recommended daily upper limit, which would estimate what proportion of cancer cases were associated with drinking more than 24g of pure alcohol day for men (equivalent to 3 units) and 12g/day alcohol for women (equivalent to 1.5 units). The population attributable fraction indicates what reduction in cancer incidence would be expected if consumption were reduced below this level.

What were the basic results?

There was variation in average alcohol consumption across European countries. By applying the results of the EPIC study to national population data, the study estimated that 10% of all cancers in men in Europe (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% of all cancers in women in Europe (1 to 5%) could be attributable to alcohol consumption (both former and current).

The researchers also calculated alcohol attributable fractions relating to specific cancers:

  • Upper digestive tract cancers (e.g. mouth, throat, oesophagus) – 44% for males and 25% for females
  • Liver cancer – 33% for males and 18% for females
  • Colorectal cancer – 17% for males and 4% for females
  • Female breast cancer – 5% of cases.
    UK-specific data were similar to these European averages.

Based on 2008 European cancer data, alcohol consumption above the daily maximum (as defined above) caused 33,037 of 178,578 alcohol-related cancers in men (18.5%) and 17,470 of the 397,043 alcohol-related cancers in women (4.4%).

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers conclude that an “important proportion” of cancers in Western Europe can be attributed to alcohol consumption, especially when consumption is higher than the recommended daily upper limits. They say that their data “supports current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer”.

Conclusion

This study has assessed the association between alcohol consumption and cancer risk, and it has estimated how the cancer burden could be reduced by lowering consumption to below the daily maximum limits (defined in this study as 24g for men and 12g for women). The study has several strengths, including its large study population drawn from eight European countries and thorough follow-up of participants (less than 2% of the sample in all countries were lost during the follow-up process). It also combined the cohort data with general population data on alcohol consumption and cancer figures to estimate country-relevant data.

There are some limitations that should be acknowledged:

  • The underlying data on alcohol intake was self-reported by participants, and the quality of the consumption data would rely on them accurately estimating their drinking. The study also looked at consumption during past decades, which might be particularly difficult to recall.
  • The study may not have adjusted for all possible confounders (i.e. factors that are linked to both alcohol consumption and cancer outcomes). However, they did adjust for the most obvious ones, which is a strength of this cohort.
  • The researchers say the estimates they calculated in this study were based on an assumption that alcohol is causative in the cancers studied (e.g.cancers of the aerodigestive system and liver). While alcohol may not be conclusively proven as a cause of these cancers there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that this is a major cause.
  • There may be differences between the participants who agreed to participate and those who did not. If this is so, the results may not be generalisable to the populations from which the samples were drawn.
  • The study looked at people who drank beyond recommended daily limits, but did not calculate how increasing levels of consumption related to cancer risk.

The study estimates that, in the European population as a whole, 10% of all cancers in men and 3% of all cancers in women could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption was already known to be associated with numerous cancers, in particular those of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, liver and bowel, and this study data supports those associations. For those cancers that are believed to be causatively associated with cancer, the study estimates that 32% in men and 5% in women can be attributed to alcohol, and a large proportion of this attributable fraction is due to consumption above the daily maximum.

As the researchers appropriately conclude, there is a “necessity to continue and to increase efforts to reduce alcohol consumption in Europe, both on the individual and the population level”.

Source AFP

About one in 10 cancers in men and one in 33 in women in western European countries are caused by current and past alcohol consumption, according to a study released on Friday.

For some types of cancer, the rates are significantly higher, it said.

In 2008, for men, 44, 25 and 33 percent of upper digestive track, liver and colon cancers respectively were caused by alcohol in six of the countries examined, the study found.

About one in 10 cancers in men and one in 33 in women in western European countries are caused by current and past alcohol consumption, according to a study released on Friday. (AFP Photo) About one in 10 cancers in men and one in 33 in women in western European countries are caused by current and past alcohol consumption, according to a study released on Friday. (AFP Photo)

The countries were Britain, Italy, Spain, Greece, Germany and Denmark.

The study also showed that half of these cancer cases occurred in men who drank more than a recommended daily limit of 24 grams of alcohol, roughly two small glasses of wine or a pint of beer.

The cancer rates for women in the same countries, along with the Netherlands and France, was 18 percent for throat, mouth and stomach, 17 percent for liver, five percent for breast and four percent for colon cancer.

Four-fifths of these cases were due to daily consumption above recommended limits, set for women at half the level of men.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has long maintained that there is a causal link between alcohol consumption and cancers, especially of the liver, colon, upper digestive tract and, for women, breast.

But few studies have tried to connect the dots across a large population between cancer rates and total alcohol consumption, or the proportion of the disease burden occurring in people who drink more than guidelines would allow.

“Our data show that many cancer cases could have been avoided if alcohol consumption is limited to two alcoholic drinks per day in men and one alcoholic drink per day in women,” said Madlen Schutze, an epidemiologist at the German Institute of Human Nutrition in Potsdam and lead author of the study.

The findings also suggest that the limits set by many national health authorities may not be stringent enough to avoid the disease, she said.

“Even more cancer cases would be prevented if people reduced their alcohol intake to below recommended guidelines or stopped drinking alcohol at all,” she said in a statement.

The results, published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), are drawn from the so-called EPIC cancer survey of 363,000 men and women who have been tracked since the mid-1990s.

Other risk factors that might have also led to cancer — especially smoking and obesity — were taken into account, the researchers said.

Nearly 44 percent of men in Germany exceeded the 24-gramme daily limit, followed by Denmark (43.6 percent) and Britain (41.1 percent).

Among women, Germany still topped the list, with 43.5 percent of women there exceeding limit, with Denmark (41 percent) and Britain (37.7 percent) coming in second and third.

AFP

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